The Rite of Anointing tells us there is no need to wait until a person is at the point of death to receive the Sacrament. Through the ministry of the priest, it is Jesus who touches the sick to heal them from sin - and sometimes even from physical ailment. The core message of his healing tells us of his plan to conquer sin and death by his dying and rising.
A baptized person, of sufficient age, who has become seriously ill or impaired by sickness, is facing surgery for a serious illness or is in a weakened condition because of old age may receive the sacrament. The sacrament may be repeated if the sick person recovers after being anointed and then becomes ill again or during hte same illness when the condition becomes more serious (Canon 1004).
The primary effect of the Sacrament is a spiritual healing by which the sick person receives the Holy Spirit's gift of peace and courage to deal with the difficulties that accompany serious illness or frailty of old age.